In several programs the values are stored like the numbers in the third column. How are these numbers converted?

Dec Hex ???

1 1 8100

2 2 8200

3 3 8240

4 4 8300

5 5 8320

6 6 8340

7 7 8360

8 8 8400

9 9 8410

10 A 8420

11 B 8430

12 C 8440

13 D 8450

14 E 8460

15 F 8470

16 10 8500

17 11 8508

18 12 8510

19 13 8518

20 14 8520

21 15 8528

22 16 8530

23 17 8538

24 18 8540

25 19 8548

26 1A 8550

27 1B 8558

28 1C 8560

29 1D 8568

30 1E 8570

31 1F 8578

32 20 8600

33 21 8604

34 22 8608

35 23 860c

36 24 8610

37 25 8614

38 26 8618

39 27 861c

40 28 8620

41 29 8624

42 2A 8628

43 2B 862c

44 2C 8630

45 2D 8634

46 2E 8638

47 2F 863c

48 30 8640

49 31 8644

50 32 8648

51 33 864c

52 34 8650

53 35 8654

54 36 8658

55 37 865c

56 38 8660

57 39 8664

58 3A 8668

59 3B 866c

60 3C 8670

61 3D 8674

62 3E 8678

63 3F 867c

64 40 8700

65 41 8702

66 42 8704

67 43 8706

68 44 8708

69 45 870a

70 46 870c

71 47 870e

72 48 8710

73 49 8712

74 4A 8714

75 4B 8716

76 4C 8718

77 4D 871a

etc

## Can someone explain these number conversions

**Moderator:** Alastair

- Richard Bos
**Posts:**41**Joined:**Tue Apr 20, 2010 9:43 am**Location:**The Netherlands-
**Contact:**

### Re: Can someone explain these number conversions

It's weird. They're clearly four-digit hex numbers, and if you plot them, you get something that looks somewhat like a jagged, simplified attempt at creating an exponential graph using integers only. Are they perhaps used in sound generation? Frequencies are exponential, after all.

What baffles me most are the gaps. Why do the numbers skip to the next 0x100 when reaching 0x80?

What baffles me most are the gaps. Why do the numbers skip to the next 0x100 when reaching 0x80?

Richard Bos

The Netherlands

Spectrum nut and T/SAL "expert". And very amateur chess player.

The Netherlands

Spectrum nut and T/SAL "expert". And very amateur chess player.

### Re: Can someone explain these number conversions

I only printed a part . The value goes from 1 to 255, If you convert the hexnumbers from the last column to decimal numbers and you look at the gaps the difference between the numbers is as follows from 1 to 255:

1x256

2x64

4x32

8x16

16x8

32x4

64x2

128x1

The numbers are used for various values in text adventures games instead of the usual decimal or hexadecimal numbers for 1 to 255. I guess there must be some mathematical conversion to get these 4 digit hex numbers as it is clearly some sequence if you look at the gaps, but I don't know which.

1x256

2x64

4x32

8x16

16x8

32x4

64x2

128x1

The numbers are used for various values in text adventures games instead of the usual decimal or hexadecimal numbers for 1 to 255. I guess there must be some mathematical conversion to get these 4 digit hex numbers as it is clearly some sequence if you look at the gaps, but I don't know which.

- Richard Bos
**Posts:**41**Joined:**Tue Apr 20, 2010 9:43 am**Location:**The Netherlands-
**Contact:**

### Re: Can someone explain these number conversions

That makes it even odder - though it might be just an oversight by the implementor. You see, after 1x256, I would expect 2x128, and so on; or, reversely, I would have expected 1x128 as the first gap. But this is a gap - and only the one -

*within*the gaps! Very odd.

Or maybe not odd at all? Maybe the first gap

*is*128? Because, you see, between the last of the, say, 16x8 (which is 0x8570 to 0x8578) and the first of the 32x4 (0x8600 to 0x8604) there is yet another gap of 128! That is, we get the groups you describe above; but with a meta-gap of 128 between the groups. So in fact it is

1 x 128

gap of 128

2 x 64

gap of 128

4 x 32

gap of 128

all the way to

64 x 2

gap of 128

128 x 1

This makes the pattern regular again... but no less mysterious.

Well, it still looks pseudo-logarithmic to me, but the real question is why? I've never seen this before. In which games did you find these? And is the source code available? I might be able to glean something from how it is actually used, and in what situation; but frankly, from the numbers themselves, I can't say much.The numbers are used for various values in text adventures games instead of the usual decimal or hexadecimal numbers for 1 to 255. I guess there must be some mathematical conversion to get these 4 digit hex numbers as it is clearly some sequence if you look at the gaps, but I don't know which.

Intriguing. Very intriguing.

Richard Bos

The Netherlands

Spectrum nut and T/SAL "expert". And very amateur chess player.

The Netherlands

Spectrum nut and T/SAL "expert". And very amateur chess player.

### Re: Can someone explain these number conversions

Good question . Unfortunately I don't remember all games (I encountered at least around 20 games like that). However after searching several hours among my notes I found 1 :Richard Bos wrote: ↑Thu Jul 22, 2021 5:17 pmIn which games did you find these? And is the source code available?

Return to Karven

This game originally has been programmed in Basic. I manually detokenized part of the code (see attachment). It seems to be compiled and that he compiler is the reason the roomnumbers have been converted to these numbers.

If you enter the machine code monitor while playing you will find the location on address 60B9 and 60BA . The value is 8670 for the starting location.

I do have a list of all the rooms and their numbers if this could help.

- Richard Bos
**Posts:**41**Joined:**Tue Apr 20, 2010 9:43 am**Location:**The Netherlands-
**Contact:**

### Re: Can someone explain these number conversions

Ooh, a Commodore game. I've never had anything to do with the Commie and don't have an emulator for it - being firmly a Spectrum man myself. I could have a look at it, but I'm afraid I'd be starting from scratch and would mainly be guessing.

Richard Bos

The Netherlands

Spectrum nut and T/SAL "expert". And very amateur chess player.

The Netherlands

Spectrum nut and T/SAL "expert". And very amateur chess player.

### Re: Can someone explain these number conversions

No problem. I don't remember if I encountered this only with c64 games. I play games on all kinds of platforms. If I encounter this with a Speccy game I'll let you know.